Community economic development in a context of globalization and metropolization: a comparison of four North American cities


In this article, we highlight the links, few as they are, between metropolitan development institutions and community economic development (CED) organizations in a context of global economy where urban agglomerations compete for investments, while some groups of people are marginalized and some neighbourhoods are declining. First, we begin with a theoretical consideration of globalization, metropolization and community economic development. Second, we examine the relation between institutions responsible for metropolitan development and CED organizations in two Canadian agglomerations, Toronto and Montreal, and two American ones, Boston and Pittsburgh. Third, we suggest some explanations for the weak linkages between CED organizations and metropolitan institutions by raising questions about the identity, the resources and the political aspect of CED organizations, and about the vision of metropolitan actors.